Specialized studies have shown that continuous exposure to this product can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Naphthalene. Phone 13 11 26. Acute exposure to naphthalene by inhalation, in-gestion, and dermal contact is associated with hemolytic anemia, damage to the liver, and neurological damage. Naphthalene toxicity Handling naphthalene must be done with strict caution, as it is a very toxic substance. The amount necessary to produce lethargy or seizures is not known but may be as little as 12 g. Several infants developed serious poisoning from clothes and bedding that had been stored in naphthalene mothballs. i. Toxic condition caused by ingestion or inhalation of naphthalene and related compounds, commonly found in mothballs and some agricultural insecticides; symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle spasm, and In Azerbaijan, people using the oil Is the naphthalene that termites give off harmful to humans? (1984) Naphthalene toxicity in CD-1 mice: general toxicology and immunotoxicology. The effects of different parameters of the process on naphthalene decomposition in air were investigated. Rarely optic neuritis is encountered. Exposure to Naphthalene & Jaundice Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Naphthalene Poisoning. Human exposure to naphthalene (NA), an acute lung toxicant and possible human carcinogen, is primarily through inhalation. Shopp, GM; White, KL, Jr.; Holsapple, MP; et al. Route - A case of naphthalene toxicity in a 20-year-old autistic male, who improved with supportive care, red blood cell transfusion, and ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine is presented. Naphthalene poisoning. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. While Naftalan crude oil is too heavy for normal export uses (unlike Azerbaijan's plentiful Caspian Sea oil), it contains about 50 percent naphthenic hydrocarbons.. It can affect how blood carries oxygen to the heart, brain, and other organs. The poison repels their major enemy, ants, as well as microscopic worms, bacteria and fungus in the soil. Toxicity rating: Slightly to Moderately Toxic Health Eects: Can cause cataracts and damage to the retina. Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula C 10 H 8.It is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is a white crystalline solid with a characteristic odor that is detectable at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm by mass. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure to naphthalene-containing compounds such as mothballs. Inhalation: On inhalation naphthalene cases headache, confusion, excitement, nausea, vomiting and sweating. Methods: This review is an update for the clinicians to understand the pharmacology, clinical features, laboratory evaluation, and treatment for naphthalene toxicity. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors that determine actual health risks, if any. Late onset anaemia, mild jaundice, urinary color changes, by Glossary. Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may damage or destroy some red blood cells, causing a low level until the body replaces the destroyed cells. (1984) Naphthalene toxicity in CD-1 mice: general toxicology and immunotoxicology. Very high levels of naphthalene can cause headaches and nausea. Groups of male and female albino CD-1 mice (approximately 6 weeks old at the start) were administered gavage doses of 0, 5.3, 53, or 133 mg/kg naphthalene (99.3% pure) in corn oil In the nose, naphthalene exposure was with associated an increage the in incidence and severity of chronic inflammation, metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium, and hyper- plasia of Objectives: We present a systematic evidence map of studies Naphthalene is a bicyclic aromatic compound that has wide industrial and commercial applications. The LD 50 is 1.8 g/kg in adult rats. Abraham BM, Liu TY, Robert A, et al. NAPHTHALENE, 1-METHYLNAPHTHALENE, AND 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE 219 9. f Inhaling Naphthalene can irritate the nose and throat causing coughing and wheezing. Abraham BM, Liu TY, Robert A, et al. Naphthalene may also damage the liver, kidneys and the eyes. 91-20-3) in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Californias Office Naphthalene Inhalation and Cancer - Animal Studies The NTP has conducted naphthalene inhalation cancer In mice, the injury is dose-dependent and Clara cell-specific. Both compounds are volatile, and inhalation of vapors may cause eye, nose, and throat irritation. Naphthalene has caused cancer in animals. In the nose, naphthalene exposure was with associated an increage the in incidence and severity of chronic inflammation, metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium, and hyper- plasia of Chief among the uncertainties in risk assessment for NA is whether human lung CYP2A13 and CYP2F1 can mediate NAs respiratory tract toxicity. repeated exposure can cause clouding of the eye lens (cataract), which may damage vision. Toxicity to Animals: WARNING: THE LC50 VALUES HEREUNDER ARE ESTIMATED ON THE BASIS OF A 4-HOUR EXPOSURE. Inhalation. Route - ingested, inhaled, topical exposure. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure to naphthalene-containing compounds such as mothballs. What mothers-to-be inhale, so does baby so the developing bodies of unborn children are especially susceptible to naphthalene poisoning. Acute (short- term) exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with hemolytic anemia, damage to the liver, and neurological damage. In summary, naphthalene mothball ingestion can present with prolonged haemolytic anaemia and methaemoglobinaemia. Clinically, patients present with The toxicity database for NAA is complete, except for a subchronic inhalation toxicity study. Ingestion: After ingestion naphthalene causes abdominal cramps with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Chief among the uncertainties in risk assessment for NA is whether human lung CYP2A13 and CYP2F1 can mediate NAs respiratory tract toxicity. The 77.7 ppm concentration was the highest naphthalene vapour concentration obtainable under the conditions of the study.
It rarely occurs in suicidal attempts in adults and in accidental ingestion by children. persistent signs and symptoms. f Inhaling Naphthalene can irritate the nose and throat. Enough absorption can occur by inhalation of naphthalene vapor to cause significant toxicity. Background: Naphthalene is a naturally occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is also manufactured for use in consumer products such as moth repellents and has been associated with a variety of health effects including cancer. It is used as the starting material for the synthesis of other compounds, as a moth repellent, soil fumigant and lavatory deodorant. Nausea and Vomiting. naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. In this study, coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, in conjunction with a metal oxide catalyst, was used to degrade naphthalene. Chronic Health Effects The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Naphthalene and can last for months or years: This article is for information only. Fuels such as petroleum and coal contain naphthalene. Rare cases of mothball abuse predominantly by inhalation do occur. REFERENCES *Abdo KM, Grumbein S, Chou BJ, et al. Toxicity and carcinogenicity study in F344 rats following 2 years of whole-body exposure to naphthalene vapors. But if managed properly, the patient can have a good outcome. It can also cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, seizures and coma. The chosen IDLH, therefore, has been estimated from the probable oral lethal dose of 5 to 15 grams for an adult [Gerarde 1960 cited by AIHA 1967]. Clinically, patients present with acute onset of dark brown urine, watery diarrhea, and non-bloody bilious vomiting 48-96 hours after exposure. The LD 50 is 1.8 g/kg in adult rats. Naphthalene moth ball poisoning in children can present with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information
It is used as the starting material for the synthesis of other compounds, as a moth repellent, soil fumigant and lavatory deodorant. Naphthalene, a lung toxicant and possible human carcinogen, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with widespread human exposure. Naphthalene-containing mothballs can cause methemoglobinemia on inhalation. Naphthalene, NTP TR 410 Nonneoplastic lesions attributed to naphthalene exposure were observed in the nose and lungs of mice of both sexes. The ratings indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. 9-6 Table 9-2. A 33-year-old Sri Lankan woman Toxicologists are available 24/7 to provide specific clinical advice, and require the following clinical information: Agent: (drug / substance, name and formulation - immediate or modified release) Beware of the possibility of mixed overdose. Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
One of these infants died. fNaphthalene may damage the liver and kidneys. Recognizing Symptoms of Exposure to Naphthalene in Mothballs Mothballs can cause various health effects if the exposure is high enough. Naphthalene is a bicyclic aromatic compound that has wide industrial and commercial applications. Use of naphthalene in the domestic environment is associated with the risk of toxicity due to inhalation and ingestion, notably in children. Exposure to naphthalene and its substituted analogs is predominantly through inhalation although the toxicity of these compounds does not generally require inhalation, that is, parenteral administration produces the same selective damage to lung tissues as inhalation (Mahvi et al., 1977; Tong et al., 1982). Drinker et al. Clinically, patients present with acute onset of dark brown urine, watery diarrhea, and non-bloody bilious vomiting 48 Agitation, lethargy, and seizures may occur with naphthalene ingestion. With prolonted exposure to the presence of large numbers of Formosan termites, or to these fungi, it is possible for a person to become toxic by inhalation as naphthalene is quite volatile. Inhalation of naphthalene may cause skin and eye irritation; gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea; neurologic symptoms, such as confusion, excitement, and convulsions; renal problems, such as acute renal shutdown; and hematologic features, such as icterus and severe anemia. Click to see full answer People also ask, can naphthalene balls kill humans? Ingestion, either accidental or by deliberate self-harm, can occur due to its abundance as well as its candy-resembling appearance. Author: Flack-Walker, Faith A Created Date: The characteristics of plasma discharge were studied by measuring voltage and current waveforms and the Lissajous figure. Ingestion. naphthalene Toxicology A crystal formed from 2 benzene rings, used for mothballs and insecticide Toxicity Headache, N&V, hematuria; if severe or prolonged exposure, cataracts, convulsions, hepatocellular necrosis and marked hemolysis, especially in Pts with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and assesses the significance of toxicity data to human health. in extreme exposure or long term inhalation it can cause internal bleeding and liver failure resulting in death Can Termites cause naphthalene poisoning? Toilet bowl deodorizers also contain naphthalene. Abstract. REFERENCES *Abdo KM, Grumbein S, Chou BJ, et al. Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed. Though it is freely available around this country, poisoning has never been reported in the literature. Objectives: We aimed to assess the in vivo function of CYP2A13 and
Vital sign abnormalities include fever, tachycardia, Shopp, GM; White, KL, Jr.; Holsapple, MP; et al. 1993.
(1985) Naphthalene poisoning following ingestion of moth balls: Case report. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal Introduction. 2001. Poison Center at 1-800-222-1222. Naphthalene poisoning is uncommon but can prove fatal, especially in patients who are G6PD deficient. Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: No useful data on acute inhalation toxicity are available on which to base the IDLH for naphthalene. increase in severity with increasing exposure duration and most effects were observed within a shorter duration Critical effect(s): Decrease in terminal body weight Developmental Toxicity of Naphthalene (CAS No. Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 490 mg/kg [Rat]. NAPHTHALENE, 1-METHYLNAPHTHALENE, AND 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE 219 9. Clinically, patients present with acute onset of dark brown urine, watery diarrhea, and non-bloody bilious vomiting 48-96 hours after exposure. Acute hemolysis may occur, especially in patients with G6PD deficiency. Human exposure to naphthalene (NA), an acute lung toxicant and possible human carcinogen, is primarily through inhalation. Fundam Appl Toxicol 4(3 pt 1):406-419. Naphthalene can be absorbed by the oral, inhalation, and dermal routes of exposure and can cross the placenta in amounts sufficient to cause fetal toxicity. As little as 250500 mg may produce hemolysis in a patient with G6PD deficiency. Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may damage or destroy some of your red blood cells. It is also highly flammable. Naphthalene poisoning occurs primarily as a result of accidental mothball ingestion, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, hematuria and severe respiratory, neurologic and hepatic effects. Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. Naphthalene poisoning. Naphthalene (mothball) is a commonly used deodorizer in the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka. Naphthalene is a white solid that evaporates easily. Carcinogenicity Evidence. Human exposure to naphthalene (NA), an acute lung toxicant and possible human carcinogen, is primarily through inhalation. Naphthalene. As the state of the science on naphthalene toxicity continues to evolve, updated toxicity reference value(s) may be required to support human health risk assessment. f High exposure to Naphthalene can cause headache, fatigue, confusion, tremor, nausea and vomiting. Naphthalene. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. 91-20-3) in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Abstract. f Exposure to Naphthalene may cause a skin allergy. Chronic naphthalene poisoning through inhalation may produce a sequence of minor but . If the nausea does not pass or the vomiting persists, seek medical attention. Background: Naphthalene ingestion and skin or inhalational exposure (accidental or deliberate) is an under-recognized cause of a severe toxidrome in regions where it is commonly used (e.g., mothballs in households).
Acute oral and subchronic inhalation exposure of humans to naphthalene has resulted in neurotoxic effects (confusion, lethargy, listlessness, vertigo), gastrointestinal distress, hepatic effects (jaundice, hepatomegaly, elevated serum enzyme levels), renal effects, and ocular effects (cataracts, optical atrophy).
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